Alien Ship Designs
Too few different canon classes are known to determine species-wise principles of alien ship design, let alone follow their development through time.
Only Klingon ships exhibit some kind of design lineage. Their ships have a forward module in which the bridge is located. A more or less pronounced neck connects this part with the rearward section. The warp nacelles are generally shorter and blockier than those of Federation starships. They are most often located beneath massive wing-like structures. Only the Bird-of-Prey has warp nacelles directly on the top of the main hull. The BoP is also the only known ship designed for planetary flight and landing.
The hull surface of Klingon ships is strongly structured and exhibits pronounced panels. The dominating color is green, although some ship types such as the D7 are rather grayish. Klingon ships have much fewer windows than comparable Federation ships, and no visible lifeboats (no lifeboats at all according to unreliable sources). Shuttlebays are probably located on the undersides of the larger ship classes. Usually, one photon torpedo launcher is facing forward, disruptor arrays are located in several parts of the hull, one preferred location being the wing tips.